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Italian scholar Corrado Barberis (1929-2019) has succeeded in animating, with rare vigor, a line of thought that in Italy, for almost a century, crossed the socioeconomic study of agriculture, the rural world, and its material culture. Thanks to Barberis, the Italian sociological school, re-founded with great effort after WWII during the 1950s and 1960s, gave also space to rural sociology. Research of Barberis covered two main fields: analysis of vitality of the peasant farm (so-called peasantry), and analysis of vital territories with persisting rurality in an advanced capitalist society, in both cases against the predictions of marginalist and Marxist scholars. Barberis was inspired by such a great agricultural economist as Giuseppe Medici. Following the Master’s footsteps, he gave his study of rural society a unique ability to connect the analysis of economic phenomena to the analysis of historical-cultural phenomena. In sum, he succeded in making an exemplary synthesis.