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Alcmaeon of Croton and Sushruta of India were ancient physicians who developed various ideas regarding the human brain that later on pathed the way for neuroscience. Their encephalocentric model of the brain was based on their keen observations and dissections, especially Sushruta who had also conducted neurosurgery. Both ancient Greece and ancient India provided fertile socio-cultural environments for the development of philosophical and medical ideas. Alcmaeon and Sushruta were the intellectual products of their historic milieu. This paper provides a comparative overview of the neuroscientific contributions of Alcmaeon and Sushruta.