Forensic anthropological discriminants for sexual dimorphism using Skull and Mandibles from a Nigerian population

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A.A. Akinlolu
H. Jimoh
G.E. Ebito


Craniometry of the skull and mandible is used in the determination of ethnic identity and gender of skeletal remains. Therefore, this study attempted to determine craniometric parameters with higher precision and accuracy for sexual dimorphism of human Skull and Mandibles. Sixty-seven adult skulls (35 males and 32 females) and seventy-two adult mandibles (36 males and 36 females) were obtained from the Anatomy museums of three Nigerian Universities. All bones with obvious pathology were excluded. Digital Vernier caliper or meter rule and a protractor were used for measurements of linear and angular surfaces respectively. Data were analyzed using the 2016 Microsoft Excel Software and Student’s t-test for comparison between male and female and pairwise comparison between right and left of paired parameters. The test of significance was set at p≤0.05. Results confirmed that the Gonial Angle and Bimental breadth showed significant sexual dimorphism between male and female mandibles. However, the Length and Breadth of Optic Canal, Length and Breadth of Hypoglossal Canal, Length and Breadth of Carotid Canal, Antero-posterior and Transverse Diameters of Foramen Magnum, Length and Breadth of Orbital Cavity, Bizygomatic Diameter, Cranial Length, Cranial Breadth, Nasal Height, Nasal Width, Bigonial Width, Mandibular Height, Symphyseal Height, Length of Lower Jaw as well as the Body Height, Body Thickness, Ramus Height, Coronoid Height, Horizontal Length, Diagonal Length and Minimum Ramus Breadth of the Mandible showed non-significant sexual dimorphism. Overall, non-significant sexual dimorphism exists between male and female skulls and mandibles except for significant sexual dimorphisms in Gonial Angle and Bimental breadth. 

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Akinlolu, A., Jimoh, H., & Ebito, G. (2023). Forensic anthropological discriminants for sexual dimorphism using Skull and Mandibles from a Nigerian population. Human Evolution , 38(1-2), 79-95.